From Science Daily:

Psilocybin — a hallucinogenic compound derived from magic mushrooms — may offer a possible new avenue for antidepressant research, according to a new study published in The Lancet Psychiatry today.

The small feasibility trial, which involved 12 people with treatment-resistant depression, found that psilocybin was safe and well-tolerated and that, when given alongside supportive therapy, helped reduce symptoms of depression in about half of the participants at 3 months post-treatment. The authors warn that strong conclusions cannot be made about the therapeutic benefits of psilocybin but the findings show that more research in this field is now needed.

“This is the first time that psilocybin has been investigated as a potential treatment for major depression,” says lead author Dr Robin Carhart-Harris, Imperial College London, London, UK. “Treatment-resistant depression is common, disabling and extremely difficult to treat. New treatments are urgently needed, and our study shows that psilocybin is a promising area of future research. The results are encouraging and we now need larger trials to understand whether the effects we saw in this study translate into long-term benefits, and to study how psilocybin compares to other current treatments.”

Depression is a major public health burden, affecting millions of people worldwide and costing the US alone over $200 billion per year. The most common treatments for depression are cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and antidepressants. However, 1 in 5 patients with depression do not respond to any intervention, and many relapse.

“Previous animal and human brain imaging studies have suggested that psilocybin…

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